C++

Functions and Function Prototypes in C++

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Functions and Function Prototypes in C++

In C++, a function is a block of code that performs a specific task. Functions can be used to organize code, improve code reusability, and make it easier to debug and maintain code.

Defining Functions

To define a function in C++, you must specify the function’s return type, name, and any parameters it takes. For example:

int add(int x, int y) {
    return x + y;
}
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In this example, int is the return type, add is the function name, and (int x, int y) is the list of parameters that the function takes. The function then returns the sum of x and y.

Calling Functions

To call a function in C++, you simply use the function name followed by the list of arguments (if any) that the function takes. For example:

int result = add(5, 10);
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In this example, the add function is called with the arguments 5 and 10, and the result is stored in the result variable.

Function Prototypes

In C++, a function prototype is a declaration of a function that tells the compiler about the function’s name, return type, and parameters. Function prototypes are typically placed at the beginning of a program before the main() function.

Function prototypes are used when a function is defined after it is used. For example:

int add(int x, int y); // Function prototype

int main() {
    int result = add(5, 10);
    return 0;
}

int add(int x, int y) { // Function definition
    return x + y;
}
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In this example, the function prototype for add is declared before main(), and the function is defined after main(). This allows main() to call add before it is defined.

Default Arguments

In C++, you can specify default arguments for function parameters. Default arguments are used when an argument is not provided when the function is called. For example:

int add(int x, int y = 0) {
    return x + y;
}
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In this example, the add function has a default argument of 0 for the y parameter. If y is not provided when the function is called, it will default to 0.

Function Overloading

In C++, you can define multiple functions with the same name but with different parameter lists. This is called function overloading. For example:

int add(int x, int y) {
    return x + y;
}

double add(double x, double y) {
    return x + y;
}
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In this example, there are two add functions with different parameter types. The compiler will determine which function to call based on the types of the arguments passed in.

Conclusion

Functions are an important part of C++ programming. They allow you to organize code, improve code reusability, and make it easier to debug and maintain code. By using function prototypes, default arguments, and function overloading, you can make your code more flexible and powerful.

xalgord
WRITTEN BY

xalgord

Constantly learning & adapting to new technologies. Passionate about solving complex problems with code. #programming #softwareengineering

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