In C++, a function is a block of code that performs a specific task. Functions can be used to organize code, improve code reusability, and make it easier to debug and maintain code.
To define a function in C++, you must specify the function’s return type, name, and any parameters it takes. For example:
In this example,
int is the return type,
add is the function name, and
(int x, int y) is the list of parameters that the function takes. The function then returns the sum of
To call a function in C++, you simply use the function name followed by the list of arguments (if any) that the function takes. For example:
In this example, the
add function is called with the arguments
10, and the result is stored in the
In C++, a function prototype is a declaration of a function that tells the compiler about the function’s name, return type, and parameters. Function prototypes are typically placed at the beginning of a program before the
Function prototypes are used when a function is defined after it is used. For example:
In this example, the function prototype for
add is declared before
main(), and the function is defined after
main(). This allows
main() to call
add before it is defined.
In C++, you can specify default arguments for function parameters. Default arguments are used when an argument is not provided when the function is called. For example:
In this example, the
add function has a default argument of
0 for the
y parameter. If
y is not provided when the function is called, it will default to
In C++, you can define multiple functions with the same name but with different parameter lists. This is called function overloading. For example:
In this example, there are two
add functions with different parameter types. The compiler will determine which function to call based on the types of the arguments passed in.
Functions are an important part of C++ programming. They allow you to organize code, improve code reusability, and make it easier to debug and maintain code. By using function prototypes, default arguments, and function overloading, you can make your code more flexible and powerful.