C++

Constructors in C++

768
0
Constructors in C++

In object-oriented programming, a constructor is a special member function that is called when an object is created. It is used to initialize the object’s data members and perform any other necessary setup. In C++, constructors have the same name as the class they belong to and are declared with the constructorName() syntax.

Default Constructor

If a class does not have any constructors defined, the compiler automatically generates a default constructor. This constructor takes no parameters and does nothing. It is equivalent to the following code:

class MyClass {
public:
    MyClass() {}
};
C++

Parameterized Constructor

A parameterized constructor is a constructor that takes one or more parameters. It is used to initialize the object’s data members with specific values. The following code shows an example of a parameterized constructor that takes two integer parameters:

class MyClass {
public:
    MyClass(int a, int b) {
        this->a = a;
        this->b = b;
    }
private:
    int a;
    int b;
};
C++

Copy Constructor

A copy constructor is a constructor that creates a new object as a copy of an existing object. It is called when an object is created using the assignment operator or when an object is passed by value to a function. The following code shows an example of a copy constructor:

class MyClass {
public:
    MyClass(const MyClass& other) {
        this->a = other.a;
        this->b = other.b;
    }
private:
    int a;
    int b;
};
C++

The const keyword before the parameter other indicates that the copy constructor does not modify the original object.

Constructor Overloading

Like other functions in C++, constructors can be overloaded. This means that you can define multiple constructors for a class with different parameter lists. The following code shows an example of constructor overloading:

class MyClass {
public:
    MyClass() {}
    MyClass(int a) {
        this->a = a;
    }
    MyClass(int a, int b) {
        this->a = a;
        this->b = b;
    }
private:
    int a;
    int b;
};
C++

Explicit Constructor

By default, C++ allows implicit conversions from a type to its corresponding class type. For example, if a class MyClass has a constructor that takes an integer parameter, the following code is legal:

MyClass obj = 42;
C++

To prevent this kind of implicit conversion, you can use the explicit keyword before the constructor declaration:

class MyClass {
public:
    explicit MyClass(int a) {
        this->a = a;
    }
private:
    int a;
};
C++

With this code, the following code is illegal:

MyClass obj = 42; // compile error
MyClass obj(42);  // OK
C++

Conclusion

Constructors are an important part of C++ classes. They are used to initialize objects and provide a way to customize the initialization process. With the different types of constructors available in C++, you can create objects in a variety of ways to suit your needs.

xalgord
WRITTEN BY

xalgord

Constantly learning & adapting to new technologies. Passionate about solving complex problems with code. #programming #softwareengineering

Leave a Reply